Top Tips On-line Business Owners

Due to the long-last market down-turn, the financial pressure for families are increasing at dramatic speed. Meanwhile,

it’s more and more difficult for people to find a well-paid job quickly and large amount of employees are actually being laid off with large amount of labor facing the stress of losing their job

in the future.
As a result, the group of self-employed people are growing. Due to the negative effect caused by the credit crunch in loan business, the business idea concerning on-line businesses, such

as Blogtrepreneurship and E-commerce, show off their merits over other businesses ideas in their low demands in original funds. These on-line businesses are also quite appropriate options

for the house-wives, who are looking for some means to help with earning extra money in their spare time to meet their budget.
For all of the on-line businesses, one key factor in distinguishing a good web-page from a poor one is its accessibility and the speed of loading the information. It should be the No. 1

priority for all the bloggers or on-line businesses owners to find a good web-hosting service.
However, not all web-hosting service could meet your needs. Sometimes, some web-hosting services could be very terrible as a result of the over-load in the domain. It will be very

annoying if the readers needs to wait for quite a while after clicking the link to get access to your web-page. If this situation exist consistently, you might suffer greatly in the web-page

traffic and it might cause you financial loss to some extend.
Compared to most over-loaded on-line businesses with longer history in the field, the ones newly come into practice can actually offer you much better service packages. As such new

web-hosting business has much more sufficient space under their domains, the speed to their customers’ web-pages are much better guaranteed. The is one of the best examples.
Are you interested in the idea of raising your own on-line businesses? Are you searching for reliable hosting services? Are you not satisfied with your current web-hosting service? Check it

out at NaniHost. You might find something that suits you.

Directory Submission for Web Promotion

Directory submission is the easiest way for web site promotion, through the directory submission, your web site link is automatically generated on the web. Web directory can generate traffic for your web site, the symbol of good web directory is, its all the categories is well classified according to the topics. Some general web directory allows adding link without reciprocal these types of directory basically used for business process and call business web directory. Mostly business directory comes under the search engine list these feature of business directory is relay good for your website which is help to increase the page rank and traffic of the web site.

A quality link directory must be optimizing for search engine with SEO friendly that’s why its gain the high page rank. SEO friendly directory accept only good website link which is well organize by professionally, it also not accepting the duplicate link. A web directory which is no need of reciprocal beside of your site which is you added on it this is called 1-way link it is best for your site.

A general web directory needs to be updated regularly like remove bad link regularly. The web directory that contains all of these characteristics together is of higher quality and that is the web directory you want. A directory like this can drive traffic and page strength to your site.

How to get a free PS3

Games are the important part of today’s entertainment industry. If you ever played the PlayStation-3 games. These games are quite amazing, Thanks to the internet, it's now possible to get free gadgets, including free PS3s, free iPod, free iPhone 3Gs, and more, using a new and 100% genuine business model. Now you can download the latest model of PS-3 games without any cost.

If you are looking for some of the best free PS3 games then look no further, Just take a review of some sites that can let you download free PS-3 games only you need to make a closer look on the version and the functionalists of the games. Be sure that there is no any hidden cost included meanwhile the process of downloading the game. You’ll save a lot amount of money and time to download these free PS-3 Games.

One more thing is that you will get amazing support from the free download sites and you will get step by step directions on how to download the best ps3 games for free without waiting for hours and hours. If you want to get the free wii, you need to try any one of the many advertisers offers posted on the site. Just let your friends know about this site and get you free Wii.

LiquidationLinks Helps Liquidate Inventory

Liquidation Links Asset Recovery Specialists can handle and purchase an immense amount of inventory at a negotiated price. Liquidation Links will efficiently handle all the logistics after the inventory is ready to be purchased.

LiquidationLinks takes over all the returned merchandise that a retailer, manufacturer, Distributor, has an excessive amount of. Thereafter we handle all the Logistics from freight as well as customs into the U.S or from the U.S into Canada. Liquidation Links has inventory in the U.S as well as Canada.

Products Liquidation Links carry are primarily Consumer Electronics, but we do Handle, House ware, Food &Beverages, Apparel & Fashion, Hard goods, Computer Hardware & Software, Excess Inventory, Furniture, Health & Beauty, Toys, Jewelry.

LiquidationLinks can help your company turn inventory/assets in to working cash for your company. Liquidation Links can move a tremendous amount of overstock inventory in a short amount of time. Liquidation Links also offer wholesale bulk pricing on all types of electronic merchandise and gaming consoles.

Liquidation Links headquarters are located in Canada; however we deal in the USA as well as CA. LiquidationLinks uses it’s international connections and network to help you unload the merchandise and inventory that you need to Liquidate.

Contact Liquidationlinks and discover a more effective way to liquidate inventory.

Plumbing Services in Sydney

Plumbing is a very necessary process meanwhile the development of house because everyone wants running water, clean clothes, flushing toilets and hot showers these latest conveniences are the benefits of plumbing systems. Plumbing devices are complicated and sometimes these devices can be a harrowing sight specially when you are in a rush to work.

Such times are for a good plumbing service from a reliable and efficient plumber who charges a reasonable rate for the job. There are many plumbing service providers in Sydney who are providing trained sydney plumber.

sydney plumbing experts offer very fast plumbing services from repairing pipes and toilet flushes to installing new systems in kitchen and bathrooms in affordable prices. Plumbers are trained about what they need to do so when something damaged then don't disturb or try to maintain this. Some places are very critical and plumber sydney do this in their professional way.

There are some other precautions that are very effective whenever you are in these types of situations. Like if it is a leaking water pipe, then you have to turn off the main shut-off valve, which is normally located outside your house. The bottom line is to stop the water supply until the problem is taken care of.

Politics of Our India and All Other Worlds

We think we can eat what we want when we want with no consequences. If you suffer from heartburn then this means that you're simply making your life miserable by helping bring on attacks of heartburn for no good reason.We eat to stay alive. It's really that simple. Eating is a pleasure but is also completely and totally necessary for our survival. Very few of you will actually consider the food that you put into your body; is it actually any good for you? We pay almost no attention to what we eat and then wonder why we wind up suffering from acid reflux.

There are some things the human body does need. It needs water. It needs protein. It needs iron. The problem is that what you eat is normally what you want to eat as opposed to what the body itself actually needs. Needs Versus Wants are two very, very different things. What you eat says a lot about who you are and how you live your life. Your body is basically an engine and if you feed it with crap it's going to kickback and cause you trouble - sooner or later.If you find that a certain pattern of eating or a certain type of food is causing bouts of heartburn then pay attention to what your body is telling you and either change the pattern or eliminate the type of food causing the problem.

Exercise is good for your digestion full stop. So instead of planting yourself on the sofa in front of the tube after each meal why not take a quick walk to help you digest your meal? You don't have to go walking for miles and miles. Even just a few minutes is enough to help you digest food more easily and prevent attacks of acid reflux.Manageable Meals.The rush and hustle of modern life has given us some really bad eating habits. You rush from the bed, grab a coffee and then go to work. You eat a danish for our snack, then rush a sandwhich at your desk for lunch. After a long and stressful day you then go home and eat a huge meal, drink a beer and doze off on the sofa.

Extenze Male Enhancement with Liquid Vitamins Help

There has been a huge buzz online about Extenze Male Enhancement Pills and how they can help enlarge your penis and increase your girth just by taking a simple pill one time a day.
Extenze is categorized as a nutritional supplement, one that can help increase the natural blood flow to your penis and increase its size overtime.

While this has never been truly documented as 100% effective, taking care of your body with liquid vitamins and nutritional supplements can help overtime. And that is just what this is about, Extenze Male Enhancement pills and liquid vitamins and minerals for your body can help that overtime if you take care of your body and exercise daily.

You can find discounted prices on Extenze Pills as well as Liquid vitamins at many sites, but finding the right site with the right price and be difficult.

I hope you have learned a little bit more about the all natural Extenze Male Enhancement Pills as well as our valued liquid vitamins.

Believing in Cash Gifting Programs for Success

Cash Gifting Programs are a rising online due to the easiness and effectiviness of how quick and fast you can make money through cash gifting.

Cash Gifting has been around for some 8 years, and while it has helped many people make a lot of money in a short period of time, most people have a hard time grabbing the concept of cash gifting programs and how effective they truly are.

Cash Gifting can be looked at like an activity to help one another out, with no real products to speak of, what are you buying into is a cash gifting expert and their marketing system, internet training and support. Without doing the proper research before joining just any cash gifting program, you could end up losing a lot of money without joining the right cash gifting expert.

That is why you must look into the Cash Gifting Power Team as a great team to join because of their support, marketing, and training as a combined package when you join them.

Thanks for reading about cash gifting Programs, just be sure not to join a scam or the wrong person and you can do very well with them!

The Essential Thing for Any Trip

If you say an essential thing to be gotten upon, you have to think of the transportation that you will be having on your trip. This is the case wherein you will be able to be mindful enough to your trip per se. This can be calculated if you will have the car hire Ireland or the cars hire Dublin airport service that they offer. In this way, you will be able to make it as a useful tool for you to have. And in order to take on with this, you can also get into it wisely by reservation.

How to Unlock iPhone 3G

iUnlock iPhone 3G are a professional iPhone unlocking business. If you have an iPhone 2G or iPhone 3G that you want to unlock, then Unlock iPhone has the perfect solution to cater for both. With their constantly updated solutions, you can be sure that your iPhone will always remain unlocked - thanks to free updates, unlike a lot of the so called competition.

If you have a first generation (2G) iPhone that you want to unlock, then you can do so with their unlocking software solution. For £17.99 you can purchase your membership and instantly download the iPhone unlock software from the members area, where you also find a nice support system, a downloads section and a knowledge base page.

If you want to unlock a 3G iPhone, then you can purchase Unlock iPhone 3G 's SIM unlocking solution for £34.99. It will unlock any iPhone 3G worldwide, with no hardware modifications (no cutting of your SIM) - simply insert the SIM into your iPhone 3G and it's instantly unlocked.

In conclusion, if you have an iPhone that you want unlocked - can unlock it, 3g, 2g, any firmware version, any country! Unlock your iPhone now!

Maintain Security with 123Together Exchange Hosting

The internet has provided the world with a medium of communication that offers limitless possibilities and potential pitfalls in equal quantities. There is no question that the ability to transfer ideas and concepts instantly to another part of the globe has opened up new markets and made many companies ultra successful, but for every positive benefit there is usually an equally dangerous hazard that needs to be avoided.

Your company data should be secure and your network must be invulnerable from attack by viruses and hackers if you are going to succeed in the world of internet marketing and communications. 123Together, a US-based Exchange Hosting Provider, has installed safeguards that ensure its clients are protected from the dangers that exist out there. 123Together Exchange hosting incorporates an Enterprise managed firewall and screens all inbound and outbound emails for harmful viruses.

Daily back-ups of all files is a procedure that business people know must be done but often neglect in their busy schedules. 123Together Hosted Exchange backs up files daily and stores them in a secure datacenter that is safe enough to be used by the NYSE. All of the latest security holes and methods being used by hackers are protected against and you can leave your office every day knowing that your data is secure.

Owning or managing a business of any kind requires more hours than most people have available in day. There are certain tasks that should be left to professionals that have experience in those specific areas. 123Together is an industry leader in shared and dedicated Exchange hosting and can handle your data storage and security issues while providing you efficient hosting exchange server access and mobility options to make your life easier.

Wedding Planning And Making Money Online

It is very true that couples will spend a lot of money of their wedding. As a result, there is really a great potential for you to make money online with wedding planning. What I mean here is that you will be able to make money online by selling items related to wedding planning.

When a couple is planning for a wedding, they have to consider a lot of details. For example, they have to send the save the date card at least half year before and send the wedding invitations 12 weeks before their wedding.

People are very busy nowadays. They may not really have enough time to plan for their wedding. Even if they have the time to do so, they may not really know the etiquettes. It can be even more difficult if it is a Chinese couple. There are a lot of etiquettes associated with Chinese wedding traditions. The couple may not really understand or know all these etiquettes.

As a result, there is a possibility of making money online by creating ebooks on wedding etiquettes or ebooks on tips about wedding planning. These kinds of ebooks can be sold very well. In fact, you can see that there are some people who are selling such ebooks when you try to search in clickbank.

Selling ebooks is not the only way to make money online with wedding planning. You can even be able to make money using PPC networks. There are a lot of advertisers in this field and you can earn quite a bit of money with it. You may start a website on free wedding invitation templates and make money. It is not difficult to do so at the end of the day. However, if you are doing SEO work, the keyword wedding can be a very challenging one. As a result, you will still want to concentrate on long tails instead.

Of course you may also consider starting an online shop which sells wedding gifts. The gifts are certainly something very important. However, the capital involved should also be considered. You may need to spend some money on the inventories. Yet you may consider join some affiliate programs which sell such products and this may be an excellent choice.

Waiora Detox Body Supplement Zeolite

Waiora is a company which started from scratch four years from now to become a leading firm in the field of global business. The reasons why Waiora Zeolite grew so rapidly when most failed is because it had a vision and a systematic strategy to realize that dream of detox body process. At present Waiora Natural Cellular Defense is associated with health products and hence it believes in a healthy life and healthier living. The Baby Boomer Generation which comprises of individuals who were born between 1946 and 1964 now comprises of a seventy seven million strong market for improved health and finances.

At present the focus of Waiora Zeolite is on the Baby Boomer generation, as each day in the United States alone, as many as thirteen thousand Baby Boomers turn fifty years of age. Likewise, it is interesting to note that these seventy seven million strong community of ‘Baby Boomers’ control seventy seven percent of the country’s financial assets. Besides, by the year 2012, the population of people over the age of fifty would increase to one third from a mere one quarter at present and will help detox body.

Waiora has estimated that out of the seventy seven million Baby Boomers, almost eighty percent are expected to continue earning after they retire from active jobs. Likewise, seventy two percent of senior citizens prefer to take supplements because they feel better and approximately eighty three percent of the United States Households purchase some or the other form of nutritional supplements.

It is obvious that as the population of Baby Boomers booms, the need for health equipments and related health products would rise and Waiora knows that. This is why we need Waiora Zeolite for its body detox advantages!

Urban Clothing Store Specializing in Ed Hardy

If the phrase “Ed Hardy jeans sale” does not get you excited, then you have not been paying attention to latest trends. The Ed Hardy clothing line is just the latest stunningly successful endeavor of fashion mogul, Christian Audigier and that alone is enough to get the stars excited. These days say “Ed Hardy on sale” out loud and you’ll get the attention of everybody within hearing distance, but it wasn’t always like that.

Ten years ago, the idea of unknown Audigier and tattoo inspired fashion, would have probably made many fashion forward folks laugh out loud. After arriving unemployed in the states in 2001, Christian Audigier is now at the center of one of the most meteoric rises in fashion history.
He is known far and wide as the top designer for Diesel, Fiorucci, Bisou Bisou and Von Dutch and now adds Ed Hardy to his collections as well.

A true case of life influencing fashion can be seen in the story of Ed Hardy. With the popular followings of tattoo shows such as Miami and LA Ink, tattoos and the art inspired by them have been slowly seeping into the mainstream line of sight. As a true artist and traditional tattooist, Don Ed Hardy can be seen as one who has been waiting for this day to come for quite some time. With an honorary doctorate from the San Francisco Art Institute, this California native is recognized around the world for his hypnotic imagery as a painter and printmaker and his tattoo influenced designs as fine art are shown in galleries and museums all over the West. Audigier saw the writing on the wall in 2004 and licensed the rights to produce the Ed Hardy clothing
line, which is based on Hardy’s imagery.

The collection represents an entire lifestyle of street couture, appealing to both men and women, with high quality, intricately designed tee shirts, caps, wovens, and outerwear. Ed Hardy fresh and inspirational designs are hot, hot hot! As Audigier keeps track of which celebrity is wearing his clothes today, cutting edge jeans urban clothing store offers a great selection of discounted Ed Hardy screened tattoo tee shirts, jeweled and glittered tee shirts and With prices at 34.99 to 149.99 (elsewhere $54 to $265), you can’t go wrong with this hot trend.

Modern History of India

From mid-18th century to the independence of India, which is on August 15, 1947. Then the deluge. It is fashionable among historians to deplore the lack of historical sense among historical Indians, which has made their work very difficult.

What is heartening is that Indians still lack a sense of history and not much is being done to record contemporary history of India. So much so that a series on the Indian Independence movement was commissioned by the Indian government years ago to counter a British series on the subject. The series is still to come out, and don't hold your breath for it either.

Indian History might seem like a labyrinth, or one of those confusing Tower of Babel paintings. This is primarily because each region in India was pretty much doing its own thing and creating a history of its own. For the sake of everyone's sanity, we have tried in our sections of history of India to give you a brief background of what was happening in that period with special reference to the major dynasties of the era. of course, having known that much you’ll be hungry for more, for which keep watching this space as the saga unfolds!

Indian removal

Early in the 19th century, while the rapidly-growing United States expanded into the lower South, white settlers faced what they considered an obstacle. This area was home to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations. These Indian nations, in the view of the settlers and many other white Americans, were standing in the way of progress. Eager for land to raise cotton, the settlers pressured the federal government to acquire Indian territory.

Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal. In 1814 he commanded the U.S. military forces that defeated a faction of the Creek nation. In their defeat, the Creeks lost 22 million acres of land in southern Georgia and central Alabama. The U.S. acquired more land in 1818 when, spurred in part by the motivation to punish the Seminoles for their practice of harboring fugitive slaves, Jackson's troops invaded Spanish Florida.

From 1814 to 1824, Jackson was instrumental in negotiating nine out of eleven treaties which divested the southern tribes of their eastern lands in exchange for lands in the west. The tribes agreed to the treaties for strategic reasons. They wanted to appease the government in the hopes of retaining some of their land, and they wanted to protect themselves from white harassment. As a result of the treaties, the United States gained control over three-quarters of Alabama and Florida, as well as parts of Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and North Carolina. This was a period of voluntary Indian migration, however, and only a small number of Creeks, Cherokee and Choctaws actually moved to the new lands.

In 1823 the Supreme Court handed down a decision which stated that Indians could occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands. This was because their "right of occupancy" was subordinate to the United States' "right of discovery." In response to the great threat this posed, the Creeks, Cherokee, and Chicasaw instituted policies of restricting land sales to the government. They wanted to protect what remained of their land before it was too late.

Although the five Indian nations had made earlier attempts at resistance, many of their strategies were non-violent. One method was to adopt Anglo-American practices such as large-scale farming, Western education, and slave-holding. This earned the nations the designation of the "Five Civilized Tribes." They adopted this policy of assimilation in an attempt to coexist with settlers and ward off hostility. But it only made whites jealous and resentful.

Other attempts involved ceding portions of their land to the United States with a view to retaining control over at least part of their territory, or of the new territory they received in exchange. Some Indian nations simply refused to leave their land -- the Creeks and the Seminoles even waged war to protect their territory. The First Seminole War lasted from 1817 to 1818. The Seminoles were aided by fugitive slaves who had found protection among them and had been living with them for years. The presence of the fugitives enraged white planters and fueled their desire to defeat the Seminoles.

The Cherokee used legal means in their attempt to safeguard their rights. They sought protection from land-hungry white settlers, who continually harassed them by stealing their livestock, burning their towns, and sqatting on their land. In 1827 the Cherokee adopted a written constitution declaring themselves to be a sovereign nation. They based this on United States policy; in former treaties, Indian nations had been declared sovereign so they would be legally capable of ceding their lands. Now the Cherokee hoped to use this status to their advantage. The state of Georgia, however, did not recognize their sovereign status, but saw them as tenants living on state land. The Cherokee took their case to the Supreme Court, which ruled against them.

The Cherokee went to the Supreme Court again in 1831. This time they based their appeal on an 1830 Georgia law which prohibited whites from living on Indian territory after March 31, 1831, without a license from the state. The state legislature had written this law to justify removing white missionaries who were helping the Indians resist removal. The court this time decided in favor of the Cherokee. It stated that the Cherokee had the right to self-government, and declared Georgia's extension of state law over them to be unconstitutional. The state of Georgia refused to abide by the Court decision, however, and President Jackson refused to enforce the law.

In 1830, just a year after taking office, Jackson pushed a new piece of legislation called the "Indian Removal Act" through both houses of Congress. It gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. Under these treaties, the Indians were to give up their lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands to the west. Those wishing to remain in the east would become citizens of their home state. This act affected not only the southeastern nations, but many others further north. The removal was supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, and it was that way for the tribes that agreed to the conditions. But the southeastern nations resisted, and Jackson forced them to leave.

Indian constitution

INDIAN POLITICS ENTERED a new era at the beginning of the 1990s. The period of political domination by the Congress (I) branch of the Indian National Congress came to an end with the party's defeat in the 1989 general elections, and India began a period of intense multiparty political competition. Even though the Congress (I) regained power as a minority government in 1991, its grasp on power was precarious. The Nehruvian socialist ideology that the party had used to fashion India's political agenda had lost much of its popular appeal. The Congress (I) political leadership had lost the mantle of moral integrity inherited from the Indian National Congress's role in the independence movement, and it was widely viewed as corrupt. Support among key social bases of the Congress (I) political coalition was seriously eroding.

The Indian constitution is also one of the most frequently amended constitutions in the world. The first amendment came only a year after the adoption of the constitution and instituted numerous minor changes. Many more amendments followed, and through June 1995 the constitution had been amended seventy-seven times, a rate of almost two amendments per year since 1950. Most of the constitution can be amended after a quorum of more than half of the members of each house in Parliament passes an amendment with a two-thirds majority vote. Articles pertaining to the distribution of legislative authority between the central and state governments must also be approved by 50 percent of the state legislatures.

Foreign relations and military

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. It took a leading role in the 1950s by advocating the independence of European colonies in Africa and Asia.[54] India is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement.[55] After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India's relationship with the Soviet Union warmed at the expense of ties with the United States and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. India has fought four wars with Pakistan, primarily over Kashmir. India also fought and won an additional war with Pakistan for the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971

In recent years, India has played an influential role in the ASEAN[56], SAARC, and the WTO.[57] India is a founding member and long time supporter of the United Nations, with over 55,000 Indian military and police personnel having served in thirty-five UN peace keeping operations deployed across four continents.[58] Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has consistently refused to sign the CTBT and the NPT, preferring instead to maintain sovereignty over its nuclear program. Recent overtures by the Indian government have strengthened relations with the United States, China, and Pakistan. In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with other developing nations in South America, Asia, and Africa.

India maintains the third largest military force in the world, which consists of the Indian Army, Navy, and Air Force.[8] Auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command also come under the military's purview. The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian armed forces. India became a nuclear power in 1974 after conducting an initial nuclear test, Operation Smiling Buddha. Further underground testing in 1998 led to international military sanctions against India, which were gradually withdrawn after September 2001. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy[59] and has a "strong nuclear non-proliferation record" according to the White House,[60] despite not being a signatory to the Nuclear

Indian Point As Backdrop

THE small hamlet of Buchanan has become a popular news conference locale in recent months. Since the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, there has been broad public debate about whether the Indian Point nuclear power plant there is a target for terrorism.

Showing at the plant has promised plenty of news coverage, and many politicians have taken the plant's officials to task over various issues, including shutting the plant down. But more and more plant supporters are now accusing politicians of jumping on the Indian Point bandwagon and exploiting the issue for their own political gain.

Central in this backlash is Gavin J. Donohue, executive director of the Independent Power Producers of New York. Mr. Donohue has accused politicians of using the plant as a news conference backdrop and ''inducing hysteria and fear in residents.''

Mr. Donohue, whose trade association represents electric generators and marketers, contended that ''these politicians know very little about a complex issue'' but have simply seized upon it to get themselves some camera time. He called their calls to shut down Indian Point permanently ''a self-serving attempt to take advantage of Sept. 11 by manipulating the fears of Westchester residents.''

''It's political opportunism by politicians who don't know the impact of such a decision,'' said Mr. Donohue. Closing the plant, he contended, would increase electric rates for residents by 40 percent and cost more than 1,500 jobs. It would also delete a tax base of $45 million and $356 million in payroll and expenditures that the plant adds to the local economy, he said, and overtax the state's electric system.

Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton and Senator Charles E. Schumer have appeared in front of Indian Point. So have Representatives Nita M. Lowey and Eliot L. Engel, both of whom have advocated closing or decommissioning the plant.

History of India

The history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE. Its Mature Harappan period lasted from 2600-1900 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization collapsed at the beginning of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains and which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. In two of these, in the 6th century BCE, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born, who propagated their Shramanic philosophies among the masses.

Later, successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region and enriched its culture - from the Achaemenid Persian empire[1] around 543 BCE, to Alexander the Great[2] in 326 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom, founded by Demetrius of Bactria, included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE; it reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture.

The subcontinent was united under the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It subsequently became fragmented, with various parts ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next ten centuries. Its northern regions were united once again in the 4th century CE, and remained so for two centuries thereafter, under the Gupta Empire. This period, of Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known among its admirers as the "Golden Age of India." During the same time, and for several centuries afterwards, Southern India, under the rule of the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas, experienced its own golden age, during which Indian civilization, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of south-east Asia.

Islam arrived on the subcontinent in 712 CE, when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab,[3] setting the stage for several successive Islamic invasions between the 10th and 15th centuries CE from Central Asia, leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent, including the Ghaznavid, the Ghorid, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. Mughal rule came to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. Mughal rulers introduced middle-eastern art and architecture to India. In addition to the Mughals, several independent Hindu kingdoms, such as the Maratha Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and various Rajput kingdoms, flourished contemporaneously, in Western and Southern India respectively. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early eighteenth century, which provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company[4] gained ascendancy over South Asia.

Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, India was gradually annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the First War of Indian Independence, after which India was directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline.

During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan. Pakistan's eastern wing became the nation of Bangladesh in 1971.

Central and State Governments Of India

The central government exercises its broad administrative powers in the name of the President, whose duties are largely ceremonial. The president and vice president are elected indirectly for 5-year terms by a special electoral college. The vice president assumes the office of president in case of the death or resignation of the incumbent president.

The constitution designates the governance of India under two branches namely the executive branch and the legislative branch. Real national executive power is centered in the Council of Ministers, led by the Prime Minister of India. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who is designated by legislators of the political party or coalition commanding a parliamentary majority. The President then appoints subordinate ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. In reality, the President has no discretion on the question of whom to appoint as Prime Minister except when no political party or coalition of parties gains a majority in the Lok Sabha. Once the Prime Minister has been appointed, the President has no discretion on any other matter whatsoever, including the appointment of ministers. But all Central Government decisions are nominally taken in his name.

The constitution designates the Parliament of India as the legislative branch to oversee the operation of the government. India's bicameral parliament consists of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Council of Ministers is held responsible to the Lok Sabha.

The government can enact laws and ordinances as required for the governance of the country. However, laws and ordinances have to be passed by the legislative branch in order to be effected. Parliament sessions are conducted to discuss, analyse and pass the laws tabled as Acts. Any law is first proposed as a bill in the lower house. If the lower house approves the bill in current form, the bill is then proposed to be enacted in the upper house. If not, the bill is sent for amendment and then tabled again so as to be passed as an Act. Even if the bill is passed in the lower house, the upper house has the right to reject the proposed bill and send it back to the government for amending the bill. Therefore, it can be said that the governance of India takes place under two processes; the executive process and the legislative process. Ideally, the governance cannot be done through the individual processes alone. After the Acts are passed by both the houses, the President signs the Bill as an Act. Thus the legislative branch also acts under the name of the President, like the executive branch.

Ordinances are laws that are passed in lieu of Acts, when the parliament is not in session. When the parliament is in recess, the President assumes the legislative powers of both the houses temporarily, under Part V: Chapter III - Article 335 of the Constitution of India. The government has to propose a law to the President during such periods. If the President is fully satisfied with the bill, and signs the bill, it becomes an ordinance. The powers of ordinances are temporary, and each ordinance has to be tabled in the parliament when the houses reassemble. The President also has the right to withdraw an ordinance.

States in India have their own elected governments, where as Union Territories are governed by an administrator appointed by the central government. Some of the state legislatures are bicameral, patterned after the two houses of the national parliament. The states' chief ministers are responsible to the legislatures in the same way the prime minister is responsible to parliament.

Each state also has a presidentially appointed governor who may assume certain broad powers when directed by the central government. The central government exerts greater control over the union territories than over the states, although some territories have gained more power to administer their own affairs. Local state governments in India have less autonomy compared to their counterparts in the United States and Australia.

Indian Government

INDIAN POLITICS ENTERED a new era at the beginning of the 1990s. The period of political domination by the Congress (I) branch of the Indian National Congress came to an end with the party's defeat in the 1989 general elections, and India began a period of intense multiparty political competition. Even though the Congress (I) regained power as a minority government in 1991, its grasp on power was precarious. The Nehruvian socialist ideology that the party had used to fashion India's political agenda had lost much of its popular appeal. The Congress (I) political leadership had lost the mantle of moral integrity inherited from the Indian National Congress's role in the independence movement, and it was widely viewed as corrupt. Support among key social bases of the Congress (I) political coalition was seriously eroding. The main alternative to the Congress (I), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP--Indian People's Party), embarked on a campaign to reorganize the Indian electorate in an effort to create a Hindu nationalist majority coalition. Simultaneously, such parties as the Janata Dal (People's Party), the Samajwadi Party (Socialist Party), and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP--Party of Society's Majority) attempted to ascend to power on the crest of an alliance of interests uniting Dalits (see Glossary), Backward Classes, Scheduled Tribes (see Glossary), and religious minorities.

The structure of India's federal--or union--system not only creates a strong central government but also has facilitated the concentration of power in the central government in general and in particular in the Office of the Prime Minister. This centralization of power has been a source of considerable controversy and political tension. It is likely to further exacerbate political conflict because of the increasing pluralism of the country's party system and the growing diversity of interest-group representation.

Once viewed as a source of solutions for the country's economic and social problems, the Indian polity is increasingly seen by political observers as the problem. When populist political appeals stir the passions of the masses, government institutions appear less capable than ever before of accommodating conflicts in a society mobilized along competing ethnic and religious lines. In addition, law and order have become increasingly tenuous because of the growing inability of the police to curb criminal activities and quell communal disturbances. Indeed, many observers bemoan the "criminalization" of Indian politics at a time when politicians routinely hire "muscle power" to improve their electoral prospects, and criminals themselves successfully run for public office. These circumstances have led some observers to conclude that India has entered into a growing crisis of governability.

Politics Of India

Politics of India takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary multi-party representative democratic republic modelled after the British Westminster System. The Prime Minister of India is the head of government, while the President of India is the formal head of state and holds substantial reserve powers, placing him or her in approximately the same position as the British monarch. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Parliament of India. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." India is the largest state by population with a democratically-elected government. Like the United States, India has a federal form of government, however, the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and its central government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. Regarding the former, "the Centre", the national government, can and has dismissed state governments if no majority party or coalition is able to form a government or under specific Constitutional clauses, and can impose direct federal rule known as President's rule. Locally, the Panchayati Raj system has several administrative functions

Criminalisation Of Kerala

The present decade of kerala may later be called the decade of crime. Never before had kerala witnessed so much of crime including attack against our culture, temples, spiritual institutions and spiritual leaders. Even a superficial glance at today?s crime scene in kerala reveals a stunning, haunting conclusion. Violent crime, murder, rape, robbery, burglary, home invasion, bank robbery, contract killing, and sex trade are on the increase. There is also evidence of organized Muslim crime syndicates smuggling women from kerala to the Middle East to work as sex slaves. Everyday there are new stories of gang-related crime, the proliferation of illegal weapons in Malappuram District and jihadis dealing with explosives and bombs. Once considered an isolated phenomenon, gang violence is permeating life in Kerala. Kidnapping, Contract murder, attempt to commit murder, abduction, violent crimes affecting public safety, riots, destruction of property, daylight burglary, and thefts are increasing at an alarming rate. And political killing, and religiously inspired beheading are spreading. Citizens are tormented by rampant corruption and criminalization of life in Kerala. The pre-planned cold-blooded unusual brutality by the hard-core Marxist goons against Hindu social service volunteers is going on. What is more frightening is that the present government has been providing protective shield to the criminals committing heinous acts. Organized crime syndicates, corrupt politicians and inefficient law enforcement officials are working together making life miserable for law-abiding citizens

Indian Goverment History

INDIAN POLITICS ENTERED a new era at the beginning of the 1990s. The period of political domination by the Congress (I) branch of the Indian National Congress came to an end with the party's defeat in the 1989 general elections, and India began a period of intense multiparty political competition. Even though the Congress (I) regained power as a minority government in 1991, its grasp on power was precarious. The Nehruvian socialist ideology that the party had used to fashion India's political agenda had lost much of its popular appeal. The Congress (I) political leadership had lost the mantle of moral integrity inherited from the Indian National Congress's role in the independence movement, and it was widely viewed as corrupt. Support among key social bases of the Congress (I) political coalition was seriously eroding. The main alternative to the Congress (I), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP--Indian People's Party), embarked on a campaign to reorganize the Indian electorate in an effort to create a Hindu nationalist majority coalition. Simultaneously, such parties as the Janata Dal (People's Party), the Samajwadi Party (Socialist Party), and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP--Party of Society's Majority) attempted to ascend to power on the crest of an alliance of interests uniting Dalits (see Glossary), Backward Classes, Scheduled Tribes (see Glossary), and religious minorities.

The structure of India's federal--or union--system not only creates a strong central government but also has facilitated the concentration of power in the central government in general and in particular in the Office of the Prime Minister. This centralization of power has been a source of considerable controversy and political tension. It is likely to further exacerbate political conflict because of the increasing pluralism of the country's party system and the growing diversity of interest-group representation.

Once viewed as a source of solutions for the country's economic and social problems, the Indian polity is increasingly seen by political observers as the problem. When populist political appeals stir the passions of the masses, government institutions appear less capable than ever before of accommodating conflicts in a society mobilized along competing ethnic and religious lines. In addition, law and order have become increasingly tenuous because of the growing inability of the police to curb criminal activities and quell communal disturbances. Indeed, many observers bemoan the "criminalization" of Indian politics at a time when politicians routinely hire "muscle power" to improve their electoral prospects, and criminals themselves successfully run for public office. These circumstances have led some observers to conclude that India has entered into a growing crisis of governability.

American Economy

The Iraq war was one of the most disastrous foreign policy decisions of the last few decades, and citizens across America and the world have looked on with horror as politicians and power got out of hand. Some of the primary arguments around the real motivations for war surround the rebuilding effort, and the benefits this would bring to US-based contractors and business owners. However, there are a number of reasons why this argument, in particular, is flawed and the Iraq war has actively punished the US economy—in addition the punishment dealt to innocent Iraqis and young Americans in the armed forces.

The US invaded Iraq on the grounds of weapons of mass destruction, claiming the Saddam Hussein regime was an imminent threat to world security and were sponsoring and supporting terrorism. Of course this turned out to be false, but at least there was the access to Iraqi oil reserves and the significant rebuilding contracts that would go to American contractors, correct? Actually, this didn’t happen either, and the Iraq war fiasco has led to nothing but bloodshed, with no economic advantages arising from invasion.

After the needless destruction of Iraq was completed, the rebuilding effort was to provide employment to American workers and the US economy. But that wasn’t to happen. The projects were outsourced to cheap labour economies to save money, and thanks to NAFTA, any jobs that would’ve been available for American workers were diverted elsewhere. Thus a further betrayal by the current government and another lie to fuel the flames of the Iraqi war effort.

While the cost in human lives can never compare, the US government have spent billions of dollars on the war machine for no reason. Despite the financial gains they may have sought, the US economy is still struggling and the reconstruction contracts have gone to lower labour economies as a result of cost restrictions and international treaty arrangements. For the US people, this represents yet another lie in the Iraq saga, and further undermines the credibility of the current Presidential regime.

Public Interest Litigation

Though the Constitution of India guarantees equal rights to all citizens, irrespective of race, gender, religion, and other considerations, and the "directive principles of state policy" as stated in the Constitution obligate the Government to provide to all citizens a minimum standard of living, the promise has not been fulfilled.

The greater majority of the Indian people have no assurance of two nutritious meals a day, safety of employment, safe and clean housing, or such level of education as would make it possible for them to understand their constitutional rights and obligations. Indian newspapers abound in stories of the exploitation -- by landlords,factory owners, businessmen, and the state's own functionaries, such as police and revenue officials -- of children, women, villagers, the poor, and the working class.

Though India's higher courts and, in particular, the Supreme Court have often been sensitive to the grim social realities, and have on occasion given relief to the oppressed, the poor do not have the capacity to represent themselves, or to take advantage of progressive legislation. In 1982, the Supreme Court conceded that unusual measures were warranted to enable people the full realization of not merely their civil and political rights, but the enjoyment of economic, social, and cultural rights, and in its far- reaching decision in the case of PUDR [People's Union for Democratic Rights] vs. Union of India [1982 (2) S.C.C. 253], it recognized that a third party could directly petition, whether through a letter or other means, the Court and seek its intervention in a matter where another party's fundamental rights were being violated.

Can Women Govern Politics

The answer to that question can be found in the historical record.

From September 23, 1953 to July 7, 1954,Sühbaataryn Yanjmaa acted as Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural of Mongolia making her the first women political ruler in contemporary history (except for queens).

The first elected female political ruler as well as the first woman president in Europe was Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, president of Iceland from August 1, 1980 to August 1, 1996
Since then there have been several women presidents. Currently, Mary McAleese is president of Ireland while Helen Clark is the prime minister of New Zealand. She became the second woman prime minister on December 10, 1999 when she succeeded Jenny Shipley.

Maria Gloria Macapagal Arroyo has been the president of the Philippines since January 20, 2001. She is the second women president of the Philippines

Luísa Dias Diogo is the Prime minister of Mozambique since February 17, 2004. Angela Merkel is the Federal Chancellor of Germany and Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf is the president of Liberia since January 16, 2006. She is Africa's first elected head of State.

Michelle Bachelet Jeria is the president of Chile from March 11, 2006. Louise Lake-Tack is the Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda since July 17, 2007 while Yuliya Tymoshenko has served as the prime minister of Ukraine twice, from January 24 to September 8, 2005 and again since December 18, 2007.

So many women in places of power thoughout the world shows that women can succeed in politics. They can govern and do it well. Mary McAleese, president of Ireland, had so much support for a second term that she stood unopposed. No one was willing to bear the cost of competing in an election that would be very difficult to win.

History of Politics

In the conventional narrative, Indian history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal, followed by the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic periods. It is in the Vedic period that Hinduism first arose, though some elements of Hinduism are clearly drawn from the Indus Valley civilization. In the fourth century BCE, large parts of India were united under the emperor Ashoka; he also converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism first spread to other parts of Asia. It is during the time of the Mauryas that Hinduism first began to take the shape that fundamentally informs the religion down to the present day, though popular or Puranic Hindism is generally dated to around the beginning of the Christian Era. Successor states were more fragmented. Islam first came to India in the eighth century, and by the eleventh century had firmly established itself in InJustify Fulldia as a political force; the North Indian dynasties of the Lodhis, Tughlaqs, and numerous others, whose remains are visible in Delhi and scattered elsewhere around North India, were finally succeeded by the Mughal empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity. These are certainly the generally accepted contours of Indian history before the advent of colonialism, though specialists are all inclined to write this history with particular emphases and accents.

The European presence in India dates to the sixteenth century, and it is in the very early part of the eighteenth century that the Mughal empire began to disintegrate, paving the way for regional states. In the contest for supremacy, the English emerged victors, their rule marked by the conquests at the battlefields of Plassey and Buxar. The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete. By the early part of the twentieth century, a nationalist movement had emerged; and by 1919-20, Mohandas Karamchand ('Mahatma') Gandhi had emerged as, if not the virtually undisputed leader of this movement, certainly its most well-known and formidable architect. Successive campaigns had the effect of driving the British out of India in 1947, but not before they had partitioned it, and carved out the Muslim-majority state of Pakistan -- later itself dismembered into Pakistan and Bangladesh..

The first prime minister of independent India was Jawaharlal Nehru, who held office from 1947 until his death in 1964. Apart from a short period of two years from 1975-77, when an internal emergency was imposed by then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and constitutional liberties were suspended, India has been a thriving parliamentary democracy. For a capsule political history of India in the post-1947 period, readers are invited to turn to the “Independent India” section of this site, where they will also find other specialized articles, as well as the “Current Affairs” section of MANAS, where readers will be able to find articles on selected political and social phenomena of recent years.

Indian Politics

In Indian politics, there are political parties in which one being pulls all the strings. This affection existed even afore India's independence, if Mahatma Gandhi was the ancestor amount of the Indian Civic Congress until his afterlife in 1948 even admitting he accommodated from the Congress in 1933. Indira Gandhi for some aeon was in complete ascendancy of her party. Her affair was aswell named, Congress (Indira). Shiv Sena is bedeviled by Bal Thakarey. Even if the Shiv Sena won the accompaniment elections in Maharashtra, Bal Thakarey handled the enactment of the accompaniment government but did not accredit himself as the Chief Minister but appointed anyone abroad for this post.

Some of these parties, like the Shiv Sena in which one being pulls all the strings, accept their bastion in the accessible not because of their baton but because of affair ideology. While added parties are absolutely dependable on the account the baton of the affair has in the public. One such affair is Samata Affair and its baton is George Fernandes. Another such affair was Lok Shakti and its baton was Ramakrishna Hegde.

Many of the ample civic parties accept a pre-election acceding with abate parties on collective candidates in some constituencies. This applicant belongs to one of the parties and the added affair supports this candidate. This is done to anticipate a achievability of parties, with accepted civic calendar or accepted accompaniment agenda, appoint their own altered candidates causing the agreeable of the votes of their addition and so accident the constituency to the battling wing.

In Indian backroom there are aswell abounding absolute candidates. These candidates participate in acclamation constituencies apart after the abutment of any party. In actual few cases the beyond parties aswell abutment absolute candidates.

Priyanka Gandhi: New Queen of Indian Politics

Some say she is the most charismatic Gandhi today in India’s political firmament. But the riddle that is Priyanka Gandhi is yet to be solved. She has helped her mother Sonia with election campaigning but has never publicly shown any ambition to carve out a political career for herself.

“I am here only to help my mother win a seat in the Indian Parliament,” she said. But it’s not as simple as it sounds. Behind that portrait of ordinary life and the charming smile is a human being, much of whose life was spent in circumstances far from ordinary or charming.

Hers has been a life shadowed by bodyguards. Her grandmother, Indira Gandhi, was assassinated when she was barely 12; her father, former Indian Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, was slain when she was not even 20; and her mother, the diva of the ruling Congress Party, declined the prime minister’s job couple of years back, sending a nation of one billion, as well as all the news gatherers across the world, into a tizzy at present, brother Rahul is the one into active politics while Priyanka Gandhi herself ostensibly prefers to be in the background. But the buzz about her political future refuses to die down.

This is Priyanka Gandhi, whom the “secular” Congress once projected as its main hope for the future. Admittedly charismatic and youthful, she attracts millions of votes from young heart-broken bachelors from all over India. Without doubt the prettiest politician in India today, political analysts predict a bright future for her.

Impending Dangers To India’s Political Survival

Observing Pakistan’s unfolding implosion is prompting a pleasing sensation of Schadenfreude for most Indians. But it is a grave mistake to imagine that the final outcome will not be hazardous for India. Nor is it likely that Pakistan’s leaders, harbouring visceral hatred for Hindu India, will desist from harming it while they themselves self-destruct. Indeed there is a strong likelihood of temptation to aim for an apocalyptic endgame for the region should Pakistan itself truly disintegrate.

Pakistani society is already deeply divided horizontally, with several regions increasingly estranged from the Federal State and vertically, with a vast constituency enraged by their own shockingly greedy and profoundly foolhardy elites. And the ubiquitous Americans will come up with another surreal plan for Pakistan, without ceding control over its armed forces and the nuclear assets they and the Chinese conspired to implant there in order to bring India to heel.

It may also safely be predicted, contrary to the fantasies of the Delhi chatterati and elements of the Indian establishment, that the Anglo-American alliance will greet India’s dire discomfiture with satisfaction. They will welcome the disappearance of the second non-white challenger to their historic global supremacy, accentuated by a deep dislike for Indian sanctimony and a history of ill will. They will certainly expect to pick up some of the pieces of a broken-backed India, reconstituted as querulous independent entities seeking sustenance outside the region.

The historical record of India provides no comfort that such a situation is unlikely to arise. And the internal political and ideological fissures that endured in the past have now re-established deep roots within it. Hindus love quarrelling among themselves and their susceptibility to brainwashing to ensure they do so has few parallels. The most laughable spectacle is Indian Leftists, unashamedly pursuing mammon in the US while feigning deep thought and espousing the Rights of Muslims, though careful to only belabour democratic India and its hapless Hindus.

History of Watsonville , California

Europeans and Mexicans descended upon the region in 1769. They were on a voyage to expand the missions of Baja, CA. One of the first things they noticed were what are now referred to cost redwoods, a very tall type of tree in the area. Three missions sprung up in the area: Mission Santa Cruz, Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, and Mission San Juan Bautista.

When Mexico gained its Independence the land the three missions sat on was granted to citizens of Mexico. Seven "ranchos" were established from the land grant: Bolsa de Pajaro, Bolsa de San Cayetano, Laguna de Calabasas, Los Corralitos, Salsipuedes, San Andres, and Vega del Rio del Pajaro.

During 1848 prospectors flooded the area during the boom of the Gold Rush in the Sierra Mountains. Some had a level of success with finding gold. Those that didn't cashed in on farming due to the population explosion in the region. Land was fairly inexpensive to purchase during this time.

Many ethnic groups came to the region during that time: African Americans, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, and Northern and Southern Europeans. Direct descendants of Californios and Ohlones indigenous to the area, kept a very strong presence.

The history of Watsonville, California involves the city being founded in 1852 then becoming incorporated in 1868. Its name was adopted from a judge by the name of John Watson. The judge brought litigation against Sebastian Rodriguez who owned Rancho Bolsa de Pajaro. When Watson lost the suit against Rodriguez he moved out of the area, but his name stuck as the city's name tag.

Food manufacturing facilities and agriculture of fruit, vegetables, and flowers are still the mainstay of the economy in the city and has been for a century and a half. Potatoes, wheat, and lettuce were some of the most popular crops grown in the region. More than eighty varieties of crops can be produced in the area due to the rich soil.

The Agricultural History Project does much to educate people on how the region has produced crops for more than fifty years. They work to preserve knowledge of prior farming techniques so they can be shared with subsequent generations. Some former facilities that produced frozen vegetables have since moved to Mexico.

Kashmir Divided

The Cease fire resulted in de facto partition of Jammu and Kashmir State. It was the second partition within 16 months of the first partition of India which had divided Punjab and Bengal on the basis of the religion of the people.

Whatever the reasons for this impulsive decision of Pt. Nehru the timing that he chose for or ordering cease fire was wrong, and disadvantaged India. Indian troops had left their defensive positions and were advancing on all fronts. Given some more time they could have cleared major part of the State of the Pak invaders and ended the encirclement of the valley. Nehru perhaps was keen to stop the war immediately because he had contended an international conference at New Delhi to consider the siluation arising out of Dutch aggression against Indonesia which had just wrested freedom from Dutch Colonial Yoke. He wanted to establish his own bona- fides as a man of peace by ending the war over Kashmir which had been forced on India by Pakistan. This conduct of Nehru was in keeping with his reputation of subordinating national interests to his personal whims and craze for international praise.

The Cease Fire line which was finalised at a joint military conference of India and Pakistan held at Karachi from July 18 to July 28, 1949, divided the Jammu & Kashmir State roughly into two equal parts. Beginning from near the Siachin Glacier in the North this line runs close to the Srinagar-Leh road near Kargil and then runs along the great Himalayan range dividing Kashmir from Baltistan; then turning South a little it passes near the mouth of the Burzila pass on the Kashmir side. From there it runs along the Western mountains dividing Kashmir from Chilas and Karen unto Uri from where it goes South-West parallel to the river Jehlum and touches the Southern boundary of the state near Bhimber. A major portion of Baltistan excepting Kargil, the whole of Gilgit and a major portion of the Punjabi speaking area of Muzaffarabad Poonch and Mirpur fell on the Pakistan side of the Cease Fire line. The strategic Burzila pass, the only direct link between Kashmir valley and Gilgit, also fell on the Pakistan side.

Thus out of six distinct geographical linguistic and cultural regions of the State, three came into the hands of Pakistan. All of them are predominently Muslim. All Hindus including Sikhs in these parts have either been killed or driven out.

The remaining three - Jammu, Laddakh and Kashmir valley - lie on the Indian side of the Cease Fire Line. Of these, Kashmir valley alone has a Muslim majority. The remaining two are Hindu and Buddhist majority regions of the State.

Thus by proposing the Cease fire and allowing the Pakistani forces to remain in occupation of the Pakistan held areas of the State, the Indian Government virtually accepted a partition of the State. The Cease Fire Agreement did not mention the right of the State Government to administer the areas held by Pakistan or the so-called Azad Kashmir Government. Those areas were left to be administered by the the "Local Authorities" which practically meant the "Azad Kashmir" Government or any other authority sponsored and supported by the Pakistan Government.

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The East India Company

The East India Company had the unusual distinction of ruling an entire country. Its origins were much humbler. On 31 December 1600, a group of merchants who had incorporated themselves into the East India Company were given monopoly privileges on all trade with the East Indies. The Company's ships first arrived in India, at the port of Surat, in 1608. Sir Thomas Roe reached the court of the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir, as the emissary of King James I in 1615, and gained for the British the right to establish a factory at Surat. Gradually the British eclipsed the Portugese and over the years they saw a massive expansion of their trading operations in India. Numerous trading posts were established along the east and west coasts of India, and considerable English communities developed around the three presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras. In 1717, the Company achieved its hitherto most notable success when it received a firman or royal dictat from the Mughal Emperor exempting the Company from the payment of custom duties in Bengal.

The Company saw the rise of its fortunes, and its transformation from a trading venture to a ruling enterprise, when one of its military officials, Robert Clive, defeated the forces of the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daulah , at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. A few years later the Company acquired the right to collect revenues on behalf of the Mughal Emperor, but the initial years of its administration were calamitous for the people of Bengal. The Company's servants were largely a rapacious and self-aggrandizing lot, and the plunder of Bengal left the formerly rich province in a state of utter destitution. The famine of 1769-70, which the Company's policies did nothing to alleviate, may have taken the lives of as many as a third of the population. The Company, despite the increase in trade and the revenues coming in from other sources, found itself burdened with massive military expenditures, and its destruction seemed imminent. State intervention put the ailing Company back on its feet, and Lord North's India Bill, also known as the Regulating Act of 1773, provided for greater parliamentary control over the affairs of the Company, besides placing India under the rule of a Governor-General.

Hastings remained in India until 1784 and was succeeded by Cornwallis, who initiated the Permanent Settlement, whereby an agreement in perpetuity was reached with zamindars or landlords for the collection of revenue. For the next fifty years, the British were engaged in attempts to eliminate Indian rivals, and it is under the administration of Wellesley that British territorial expansion was achieved with ruthless efficiency. Major victories were achieved against Tipu Sultan of Mysore and the Marathas, and finally the subjugation and conquest of the Sikhs in a series of Anglo- Sikh Wars led to British occupation over the entirety of India. In some places, the British practiced indirect rule, placing a Resident at the court of the native ruler who was allowed sovereignty in domestic matters. Lord Dalhousie's notorious doctrine of lapse, whereby a native state became part of British India if there was no male heir at the death of the ruler, was one of the principal means by which native states were annexed; but often the annexation, such as that of Awadh [Oudh] in 1856, was justified on the grounds that the native prince was of evil disposition, indifferent to the welfare of his subjects. The annexation of native states, harsh revenue policies, and the plight of the Indian peasantry all contributed to the Rebellion of 1857-58, referred to previously as the Sepoy Mutiny. In 1858 the East India Company was dissolved, despite a valiant defense of its purported achievements by John Stuart Mill, and the administration of India became the responsibility of the Crow.

How to Become a Navy SEAL

Applications are only accepted from those who are 28 years and above. Some Navy SEALs aspirants are given an age waiver, but only for those between 29-30 years of age and not above.

The Gender Requirement

In a nutshell, the Navy SEALs program does not accept woman applicants. This is because, according to a policy set by the Congress, women are excluded from active combat duty.

The Citizenship Requirement:-

You need to be a citizen of the United States of America to become a Navy SEAL.

If you are a citizen of a country other than America, then enlistment in the U.S Navy or any other branch of the U.S military is only open for legal residents of the United States, who also posses, what is called, the Immigration and Naturalization Service Alien Registrations Card, commonly called, the Green Card.

The Entrance Test

The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery is something that you have to battle, first up.

This test is a pre-requisite if you want to get selected into the Navy SEAL program and includes the following topics:

Word Power
Paragraph Comprehension
General Science
….. Etc

Upon the completion of these tests you are given a composite score, as well as, individual scores for each section. You must work hard to get enough qualifying scores to get into the SEAL program.

The Vision Requirement

Navy SEALs require superior vision as they are required to perform a variety of tasks that require precision. SEAL candidates might often have to correct their vision if they are to have a chance of qualifying for the difficult program.

The Enlisted Physical Screening Test or PST

All aspirants who want to become Navy SEALs have to go through this and come out perspiring but shining.

This physical screening test is designed in a way such that, it enables experts to gauge the physical ability of an applicant, in order to see whether they have the ability to tackle the strenuous Navy SEALs training.

Here are a few components of the PST:

Swimming 500 yards wherein the time limit is 12 minutes and 30 seconds
2 minutes given to perform a minimum of 42 push-ups
6 pull ups; there is no time limit here
50 sit-ups; the time limit is 2 minutes
Last but the not the least a one and a half mile run that should take no more than 11 minutes and 30 seconds.

There are periods of rest between each exercise, but this test is an inkling of things to come, if and when you enter the Navy SEALs program.

It must be said here, that these are just the preliminary tests before you embark on the challenging journey of becoming a Navy SEAL. These are the first steps in a long and difficult process of becoming one of the most impressive of all soldiering men in the U.S armed forces.

Kashmir History

The Muslim and Hindu peoples of Kashmir have lived in relative harmony and friendliness since the 13th century when Islam first became the majority religion in Kashmir. The Sufi-Islamic way of life that ordinary Muslims followed in Kashmir complemented the rishi tradition of Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus), leading to a syncretic culture where Hindus and Muslims revered the same local saints and prayed at the same shrines.

Periodically however, there have been rulers and leaders who have had a narrow view of Islam, and have subjected Hindu minorities to great cruelties and discrimination. The current armed secessionist movement in Kashmir mostly derives its inspiration from these people.

A canard is now being spread past few years by the secessionist-terrorists and their sympathizers that in 1990 Kashmiri Pandits left Kashmir willingly, having been "tricked" by then Jammu and Kashmir Governor Jagmohan. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The fact is that Kashmiri Pandits were driven from their homeland after a campaign of intimidation and harassment was launched against them by the military-wing of the secessionists. Kashmiri Pandits were forced from their hearths and homes at the point of gun. The objective of this ethnic cleansing was to create a minority free Kashmir valley where the goal of Islamization could be easily forced on the ordinary people. The books and articles below will provide you with an in-depth understanding of the genesis of the current political situation in Jammu and Kashmir.

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